A tutorial on tidy cross-validation with R
Analyzing NetHack data, part 1: What kills the players
Analyzing NetHack data, part 2: What players kill the most
Building a shiny app to explore historical newspapers: a step-by-step guide
Classification of historical newspapers content: a tutorial combining R, bash and Vowpal Wabbit, part 1
Classification of historical newspapers content: a tutorial combining R, bash and Vowpal Wabbit, part 2
Curly-Curly, the successor of Bang-Bang
Dealing with heteroskedasticity; regression with robust standard errors using R
Easy time-series prediction with R: a tutorial with air traffic data from Lux Airport
Exporting editable plots from R to Powerpoint: making ggplot2 purrr with officer
Fast food, causality and R packages, part 1
Fast food, causality and R packages, part 2
For posterity: install {xml2} on GNU/Linux distros
Forecasting my weight with R
From webscraping data to releasing it as an R package to share with the world: a full tutorial with data from NetHack
Get text from pdfs or images using OCR: a tutorial with {tesseract} and {magick}
Getting data from pdfs using the pdftools package
Getting the data from the Luxembourguish elections out of Excel
Going from a human readable Excel file to a machine-readable csv with {tidyxl}
Historical newspaper scraping with {tesseract} and R
How Luxembourguish residents spend their time: a small {flexdashboard} demo using the Time use survey data
Imputing missing values in parallel using {furrr}
Intermittent demand, Croston and Die Hard
Looking into 19th century ads from a Luxembourguish newspaper with R
Making sense of the METS and ALTO XML standards
Manipulate dates easily with {lubridate}
Manipulating strings with the {stringr} package
Maps with pie charts on top of each administrative division: an example with Luxembourg's elections data
Missing data imputation and instrumental variables regression: the tidy approach
Modern R with the tidyverse is available on Leanpub
Objects types and some useful R functions for beginners
Pivoting data frames just got easier thanks to `pivot_wide()` and `pivot_long()`
R or Python? Why not both? Using Anaconda Python within R with {reticulate}
Searching for the optimal hyper-parameters of an ARIMA model in parallel: the tidy gridsearch approach
Some fun with {gganimate}
Statistical matching, or when one single data source is not enough
The best way to visit Luxembourguish castles is doing data science + combinatorial optimization
The never-ending editor war (?)
The year of the GNU+Linux desktop is upon us: using user ratings of Steam Play compatibility to play around with regex and the tidyverse
Using Data Science to read 10 years of Luxembourguish newspapers from the 19th century
Using a genetic algorithm for the hyperparameter optimization of a SARIMA model
Using cosine similarity to find matching documents: a tutorial using Seneca's letters to his friend Lucilius
Using linear models with binary dependent variables, a simulation study
Using the tidyverse for more than data manipulation: estimating pi with Monte Carlo methods
What hyper-parameters are, and what to do with them; an illustration with ridge regression
{pmice}, an experimental package for missing data imputation in parallel using {mice} and {furrr}
Building formulae
Functional peace of mind
Get basic summary statistics for all the variables in a data frame
Getting {sparklyr}, {h2o}, {rsparkling} to work together and some fun with bash
Importing 30GB of data into R with sparklyr
Introducing brotools
It's lists all the way down
It's lists all the way down, part 2: We need to go deeper
Keep trying that api call with purrr::possibly()
Lesser known dplyr 0.7* tricks
Lesser known dplyr tricks
Lesser known purrr tricks
Make ggplot2 purrr
Mapping a list of functions to a list of datasets with a list of columns as arguments
Predicting job search by training a random forest on an unbalanced dataset
Teaching the tidyverse to beginners
Why I find tidyeval useful
tidyr::spread() and dplyr::rename_at() in action
Easy peasy STATA-like marginal effects with R
Functional programming and unit testing for data munging with R available on Leanpub
How to use jailbreakr
My free book has a cover!
Work on lists of datasets instead of individual datasets by using functional programming
Method of Simulated Moments with R
New website!
Nonlinear Gmm with R - Example with a logistic regression
Simulated Maximum Likelihood with R
Bootstrapping standard errors for difference-in-differences estimation with R
Careful with tryCatch
Data frame columns as arguments to dplyr functions
Export R output to a file
I've started writing a 'book': Functional programming and unit testing for data munging with R
Introduction to programming econometrics with R
Merge a list of datasets together
Object Oriented Programming with R: An example with a Cournot duopoly
R, R with Atlas, R with OpenBLAS and Revolution R Open: which is fastest?
Read a lot of datasets at once with R
Unit testing with R
Update to Introduction to programming econometrics with R
Using R as a Computer Algebra System with Ryacas

In this blog post, I’ll use the data that I cleaned in a previous blog post, which you can download here. If you want to follow along, download the monthly data.

In the previous blog post, I used the `auto.arima()`

function to very quickly get a “good-enough”
model to predict future monthly total passengers flying from LuxAirport. “Good-enough” models can
be all you need in a lot of situations, but perhaps you’d like to have a better model. I will show
here how you can get a better model by searching through a grid of hyper-parameters.

This blog post was partially inspired by: https://drsimonj.svbtle.com/grid-search-in-the-tidyverse

SARIMA models have a lot of hyper-parameters, 7 in total! Three trend hyper-parameters, *p, d, q*,
same as for an ARIMA model, and four seasonal hyper-parameters, *P, D, Q, S*. The traditional way t
o search for these hyper-parameters is the so-called Box-Jenkins method. You can read about it
here. This method was described
in a 1970 book, *Time series analysis: Forecasting and control* by Box and Jenkins. The method
requires that you first prepare the data by logging it and differencing it, in order to make the
time series stationary. You then need to analyze ACF and PACF plots, in order to determine the
right amount of lags… It take some time, but this method made sense in a time were computing
power was very expensive. Today, we can simply let our computer search through thousands of models,
check memes on the internet, and come back to the best fit. This blog post is for you, the busy
data scientist meme connoisseurs who cannot waste time with theory and other such useless time drains,
when there are literally thousands of new memes being created and shared every day. Every second counts.
To determine what model is best, I will do pseudo out-of-sample forecasting and compute the RMSE
for each model. I will then choose the model that has the lowest RMSE.

Let’s first load some libraries:

```
library(tidyverse)
library(forecast)
library(lubridate)
library(furrr)
library(tsibble)
library(brotools)
ihs <- function(x){
log(x + sqrt(x**2 + 1))
}
```

Now, let’s load the data:

`avia_clean_monthly <- read_csv("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/b-rodrigues/avia_par_lu/master/avia_clean_monthy.csv")`

```
## Parsed with column specification:
## cols(
## destination = col_character(),
## date = col_date(format = ""),
## passengers = col_double()
## )
```

Let’s split the data into a training set and into a testing set:

```
avia_clean_train <- avia_clean_monthly %>%
select(date, passengers) %>%
filter(year(date) < 2015) %>%
group_by(date) %>%
summarise(total_passengers = sum(passengers)) %>%
pull(total_passengers) %>%
ts(., frequency = 12, start = c(2005, 1))
avia_clean_test <- avia_clean_monthly %>%
select(date, passengers) %>%
filter(year(date) >= 2015) %>%
group_by(date) %>%
summarise(total_passengers = sum(passengers)) %>%
pull(total_passengers) %>%
ts(., frequency = 12, start = c(2015, 1))
logged_train_data <- ihs(avia_clean_train)
logged_test_data <- ihs(avia_clean_test)
```

I also define a helper function:

```
to_tibble <- function(forecast_object){
point_estimate <- forecast_object$mean %>%
as_tsibble() %>%
rename(point_estimate = value,
date = index)
upper <- forecast_object$upper %>%
as_tsibble() %>%
spread(key, value) %>%
rename(date = index,
upper80 = `80%`,
upper95 = `95%`)
lower <- forecast_object$lower %>%
as_tsibble() %>%
spread(key, value) %>%
rename(date = index,
lower80 = `80%`,
lower95 = `95%`)
reduce(list(point_estimate, upper, lower), full_join)
}
```

This function takes a `forecast`

object as argument, and returns a nice tibble. This will be useful
later, and is based on the code I already used in my previous
blog post.

Now, let’s take a closer look at the `arima()`

function:

```
ARIMA Modelling of Time Series
Description
Fit an ARIMA model to a univariate time series.
Usage
arima(x, order = c(0L, 0L, 0L),
seasonal = list(order = c(0L, 0L, 0L), period = NA),
xreg = NULL, include.mean = TRUE,
transform.pars = TRUE,
fixed = NULL, init = NULL,
method = c("CSS-ML", "ML", "CSS"), n.cond,
SSinit = c("Gardner1980", "Rossignol2011"),
optim.method = "BFGS",
optim.control = list(), kappa = 1e6)
```

The user is supposed to enter the hyper-parameters as two lists, one called `order`

for *p, d, q*
and one called `seasonal`

for *P, D, Q, S*. So what we need is to define these lists:

```
order_list <- list("p" = seq(0, 3),
"d" = seq(0, 2),
"q" = seq(0, 3)) %>%
cross() %>%
map(lift(c))
```

I first start with `order_list`

. This list has 3 elements, “p”, “d” and “q”. Each element is a
sequence from 0 to 3 (2 in the case of “d”). When I pass this list to `purrr::cross()`

I get the
product set of the starting list, so in this case a list of 4*3*4 = 48 elements. However, this
list looks pretty bad:

```
list("p" = seq(0, 3),
"d" = seq(0, 2),
"q" = seq(0, 3)) %>%
cross() %>%
head(3)
```

```
## [[1]]
## [[1]]$p
## [1] 0
##
## [[1]]$d
## [1] 0
##
## [[1]]$q
## [1] 0
##
##
## [[2]]
## [[2]]$p
## [1] 1
##
## [[2]]$d
## [1] 0
##
## [[2]]$q
## [1] 0
##
##
## [[3]]
## [[3]]$p
## [1] 2
##
## [[3]]$d
## [1] 0
##
## [[3]]$q
## [1] 0
```

I would like to have something like this instead:

```
[[1]]
p d q
0 0 0
[[2]]
p d q
1 0 0
[[3]]
p d q
2 0 0
```

This is possible with the last line, `map(lift(c))`

. There’s a lot going on in this very small
line of code. First of all, there’s `map()`

. `map()`

iterates over lists, and applies a function,
in this case `lift(c)`

. `purrr::lift()`

is a very interesting function that lifts the domain of
definition of a function from one type of input to another. The function whose input I am lifting
is `c()`

. So now, `c()`

can take a list instead of a vector. Compare the following:

```
# The usual
c("a", "b")
```

`## [1] "a" "b"`

```
# Nothing happens
c(list("a", "b"))
```

```
## [[1]]
## [1] "a"
##
## [[2]]
## [1] "b"
```

```
# Magic happens
lift(c)(list("a", "b"))
```

`## [1] "a" "b"`

So `order_list`

is exactly what I wanted:

`head(order_list)`

```
## [[1]]
## p d q
## 0 0 0
##
## [[2]]
## p d q
## 1 0 0
##
## [[3]]
## p d q
## 2 0 0
##
## [[4]]
## p d q
## 3 0 0
##
## [[5]]
## p d q
## 0 1 0
##
## [[6]]
## p d q
## 1 1 0
```

I do the same for `season_list`

:

```
season_list <- list("P" = seq(0, 3),
"D" = seq(0, 2),
"Q" = seq(0, 3),
"period" = 12) %>%
cross() %>%
map(lift(c))
```

I now coerce these two lists of vectors to tibbles:

```
orderdf <- tibble("order" = order_list)
seasondf <- tibble("season" = season_list)
```

And I can now finally create the grid of hyper-parameters:

```
hyper_parameters_df <- crossing(orderdf, seasondf)
nrows <- nrow(hyper_parameters_df)
head(hyper_parameters_df)
```

```
## # A tibble: 6 x 2
## order season
## <list> <list>
## 1 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
## 2 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
## 3 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
## 4 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
## 5 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
## 6 <int [3]> <dbl [4]>
```

The `hyper_parameters_df`

data frame has 2304 rows, meaning, I will now estimate 2304
models, and will do so in parallel. Let’s just take a quick look at the internals of `hyper_parameters_df`

:

`glimpse(hyper_parameters_df)`

```
## Observations: 2,304
## Variables: 2
## $ order <list> [<0, 0, 0>, <0, 0, 0>, <0, 0, 0>, <0, 0, 0>, <0, 0, 0>, …
## $ season <list> [<0, 0, 0, 12>, <1, 0, 0, 12>, <2, 0, 0, 12>, <3, 0, 0, …
```

So in the `order`

column, the vector `0, 0, 0`

is repeated as many times as there are combinations
of *P, D, Q, S* for `season`

. Same for all the other vectors of the `order`

column.

Because training these models might take some time, I will use the fantastic `{furrr}`

package
by Davis Vaughan to train the `arima()`

function in parallel.
For this, I first define 8 workers:

`plan(multiprocess, workers = 8)`

And then I run the code:

```
tic <- Sys.time()
models_df <- hyper_parameters_df %>%
mutate(models = future_map2(.x = order,
.y = season,
~possibly(arima, otherwise = NULL)(x = logged_train_data,
order = .x, seasonal = .y)))
running_time <- Sys.time() - tic
```

I use `future_map2()`

, which is just like `map2()`

but running in parallel.
I add a new column to the data called `models`

, which will contain the models trained over all the
different combinations of `order`

and `season`

. The models are trained on the `logged_train_data`

.

Training the 2304 models took 18 minutes, which is
plenty of time to browse the latest memes, but still quick enough that it justifies the whole approach.
Let’s take a look at the `models_df`

object:

`head(models_df)`

```
## # A tibble: 6 x 3
## order season models
## <list> <list> <list>
## 1 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
## 2 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
## 3 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
## 4 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
## 5 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
## 6 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima>
```

As you can see, the `models`

column contains all the trained models. The model on the first row,
was trained with the hyperparameters of row 1, and so on. But, our work is not over! We now need
to find the best model. First, I add a new column to the tibble, which contains the forecast. From
the forecast, I extract the point estimate:

```
models_df %>%
mutate(forecast = map(models, ~possibly(forecast, otherwise = NULL)(., h = 39))) %>%
mutate(point_forecast = map(forecast, ~.$`mean`)) %>%
....
```

You have to be familiar with a `forecast`

object to understand the last line: a `forecast`

object
is a list with certain elements, the point estimates, the confidence intervals, and so on. To get
the point estimates, I have to extract the “mean” element from the list. Hence the weird `~.$mean`

.
Then I need to add a new list-column, where each element is the vector of true values, meaning the data
from 2015 to 2018. Because I have to add it as a list of size 2304, I do that with `purrr::rerun()`

:

`rerun(5, c("a", "b", "c"))`

```
## [[1]]
## [1] "a" "b" "c"
##
## [[2]]
## [1] "a" "b" "c"
##
## [[3]]
## [1] "a" "b" "c"
##
## [[4]]
## [1] "a" "b" "c"
##
## [[5]]
## [1] "a" "b" "c"
```

It is then easy to compute the RMSE, which I add as a column to the original data:

```
... %>%
mutate(true_value = rerun(nrows, logged_test_data)) %>%
mutate(rmse = map2_dbl(point_forecast, true_value,
~sqrt(mean((.x - .y) ** 2))))
```

The whole workflow is here:

```
models_df <- models_df %>%
mutate(forecast = map(models, ~possibly(forecast, otherwise = NULL)(., h = 39))) %>%
mutate(point_forecast = map(forecast, ~.$`mean`)) %>%
mutate(true_value = rerun(nrows, logged_test_data)) %>%
mutate(rmse = map2_dbl(point_forecast, true_value,
~sqrt(mean((.x - .y) ** 2))))
```

This is how `models_df`

looks now:

`head(models_df)`

```
## # A tibble: 6 x 7
## order season models forecast point_forecast true_value rmse
## <list> <list> <list> <list> <list> <list> <dbl>
## 1 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.525
## 2 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.236
## 3 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.235
## 4 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.217
## 5 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.190
## 6 <int [3]> <dbl [4]> <Arima> <forecast> <ts> <ts> 0.174
```

Now, I can finally select the best performing model. I select the model with minimum RMSE:

```
best_model <- models_df %>%
filter(rmse == min(rmse, na.rm = TRUE))
```

And save the forecast into a new variable, as a `tibble`

, using my `to_tibble()`

function:

`(best_model_forecast <- to_tibble(best_model$forecast[[1]]))`

```
## Joining, by = "date"
## Joining, by = "date"
```

```
## # A tsibble: 39 x 6 [1M]
## date point_estimate upper80 upper95 lower80 lower95
## <mth> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
## 1 2015 Jan 11.9 12.1 12.1 11.8 11.7
## 2 2015 Feb 11.9 12.0 12.1 11.7 11.6
## 3 2015 Mar 12.1 12.3 12.3 11.9 11.9
## 4 2015 Apr 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.0 11.9
## 5 2015 May 12.2 12.4 12.5 12.1 12.0
## 6 2015 Jun 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.1 12.0
## 7 2015 Jul 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.0 11.9
## 8 2015 Aug 12.3 12.5 12.6 12.2 12.1
## 9 2015 Sep 12.3 12.5 12.6 12.2 12.1
## 10 2015 Oct 12.2 12.4 12.5 12.1 12.0
## # … with 29 more rows
```

And now, I can plot it:

```
avia_clean_monthly %>%
group_by(date) %>%
summarise(total = sum(passengers)) %>%
mutate(total_ihs = ihs(total)) %>%
ggplot() +
ggtitle("Logged data") +
geom_line(aes(y = total_ihs, x = date), colour = "#82518c") +
scale_x_date(date_breaks = "1 year", date_labels = "%m-%Y") +
geom_ribbon(data = best_model_forecast, aes(x = date, ymin = lower95, ymax = upper95),
fill = "#666018", alpha = 0.2) +
geom_line(data = best_model_forecast, aes(x = date, y = point_estimate), linetype = 2, colour = "#8e9d98") +
theme_blog()
```

Compared to the previous blog post, the
dotted line now seems to follow the true line even better! However, this is not suprising, as I
am using the test set as a validation set, which might lead to overfitting the hyperparameters
to the test set. Also, I am not saying that you should always do a gridsearch whenever you have a
problem like this one. In the case of univariate time series, I am still doubtful that a gridsearch like this is really necessary. The goal of this blog post was not to teach you how to look for
hyperparameters per se, but more to show you how to do a grid search the tidy way. I’ll be writing
about *proper* hyperparameter optimization in a future blog post.
Also, the other thing I wanted to show was the power of `{furrr}`

.

Hope you enjoyed! If you found this blog post useful, you might want to follow me on twitter for blog post updates or buy me an espresso.